This blog often explores remnants of Irish pagan culture that remained in the lives of rural cottage dwellers from the mid nineteenth century on. The wake was a ritual that held onto many pagan rites that the Roman Catholic Church eventually banned completely. This article will describe some of the stranger customs involved in the Irish wake from that time.
What are wakes? The ‘wake’ or ‘waking the dead’ is an ancient ritual with its roots in Judeo-Christian religion. When a person dies, for three days prior to that person’s burial their family observes and sits with the corpse to ensure it does not awaken or ‘wake’. The Irish wake has changed much over the years but remains important and still involves the local community coming together to mark the death of one of its number. Irish wakes still attract large numbers of people to the deceased’s home. This differs little from the past where prayers were said, refreshments were provided, alcohol may have been served and stories and occasional laughter were welcome. On the third day, the deceased was taken to the church for a formal Catholic funeral service, followed by burial at a cemetery. Until the nineteenth-century, wakes were similar with added cultural customs that amplified the experience and that today’s observer may find bizarre and even grotesque.
Keening: The idea of paying a professional mourner to cry over your dead relative may seem perplexing to us today but this was considered a norm at many Irish funerals in the mid nineteenth century. Keening for the dead from ‘Caoineadh na Marbh’ was a type of mournful, wailing singing, and was performed by a female ‘keener’. A good keener needed to be dramatic looking, dishevelled, with loosened hair and bare feet. As they keened they would theatrically throw their arms up, tear at their hair, and rock themselves as if in deep grief. The wailing lament praised the deceased, but also chastised them for dying. This was in opposition to Christian funerary rites where the Resurrection is emphasised and so the Church discouraged the use of keeners at wakes and funerals. Keening was not practised outside of funerary rituals because of the fear that the ritual would conjure up the spirit world, and few recordings of real keeners were made.*
Clay Pipes: A wake was seen as a time for eating well and enjoying special treats for people with an otherwise frugal way of life. Special ‘wake provisions’ were bought for the occasion from the local grocer and a feature of this long shopping list (which included alcohol and food) was the large number of clay pipes. Clay pipes were filled and left out for visitors to the ‘wake house’ to take. People would light the pipes and exclaim “lord have mercy!” and inhale the tobacco smoke, which was considered to have curative properties. Non-smokers were expected to partake of this ceremony to help mourn the deceased. Any clay pipes left over from the funeral were broken and buried outside the house.
Wake Games: ‘Wake amusements’ kept mourners themselves awake through the nights prior to the funeral. These amusements took place in another room or in a shed. Young people ‘courted’ while music played, dancing took place, and matchmaking was carried out in a party-like atmosphere. Men would challenge each other to fights; and some forms of vicious horseplay were common. Waking ‘games’, included mock weddings, mock confessions and ‘kissing games’. The latter had erotic overtones and such unashamed assertions of sexuality was totally at odds with the prevailing prudent attitudes in Ireland at the time.
The weirdest of all was the ‘play’ that sometimes took place with the corpse. In the wake house, it was not unknown for a clay pipe to be placed in the corpse’s mouth, and there are stories of the corpse being made to talk, puppet-like, by mourners, and even taken up for a dance around the room.
Reverence: However, despite these lively customs, the overriding mood at a wake was of reverence for the dead, and wake ‘games’ were not intended to show disrespect. Merriment and amusements were completely dispensed with if the deceased was young, had died tragically or was a particular loss to the family.
It has been argued that these customs evolved from more primitive times when fear of the dead was very strong; and that the wake rituals came about as a type of appeasement of the dead from pre-Christian times. The transformation of the Roman Catholic Church from the mid-nineteenth-century had major repercussions on such Irish cultural traditions. As the Church’s influence grew keeners and wake games were abandoned and increasingly wakes became more solemn occasions than those discussed here.
For more on wakes and superstitions surrounding them see my forthcoming book, available this summer: Marion McGarry Irish Cottages, History, Culture, Design (Orpen Press, 2017).
Gearoid O Crualaoich ‘The Merry Wake’ in Donnelly, J.S. and Miller, Kerby A., Irish popular Culture 1650-1850 (Irish Academic Press, 1999).
Kevin Danaher, Irish Customs and Beliefs (Mercier Press, 2004 ed.).
*A recording of an actual keener is available for visitors to hear at the National Museum of Country Life, Castlebar, Co. Mayo.
Recommended: ‘Songs for the Dead’ the Keening Tradition in Ireland (documentary BBC Radio 4, 2016) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07npx1f
Whatever St. Patrick’s Day might mean to us today, to our cottage dwelling ancestors it was an important but simple celebration of one of our national saints.
As St. Patrick's Day occurs on March 17th it generally became thought of as 'the middle of spring' with the promise of good weather and longer evenings important to rural farmers. This also marked the time for planting potatoes but not on the day itself, which was a religious feast day, a day of rest and a welcome reprieve from Lenten fasting to enjoy meat, treats and alcohol.
For hundreds of years’ people in Ireland wore crosses to commemorate St Patrick on his feast day, with some wearing a sprig of shamrock on their hat, shoulder or lapel. According to folklore Patrick converted Irish Pagans to Christianity by using the three leaved shamrock to explain the holy trinity. In more recent times wearing the crosses became customary for children while adults wore shamrock. Over the years the crosses evolved into fabric circular rosettes decorated with crosses, harps or fabric shamrocks, and these may still be worn by Irish children today.
On the day itself, mass was attended, and afterward dinner containing meat (usually bacon, potatoes and cabbage) was eaten. As a day of rest, no farm work was undertaken and with Lent temporarily paused it became a day to enjoy alcohol for some. The alcohol consumed on St. Patrick’s Day was known as Póta Phádraig or ‘St. Patrick’s Pot’. There is a tradition known as ‘drowning the shamrock’ after a toast to St. Patrick some shamrock was tossed over the shoulder for good luck.
For many years the pubs were closed in Ireland on St. Patrick’s Day but people still ‘found a way’. Because of this the day became a focus for the Irish Temperance movement, which was an anti-alcohol, religious association which exemplified good behaviour and national pride. From the mid-19th century they held colourful parades on St Patrick’s Day which offered a celebratory teetotal alternative to alcoholic pursuits. These parades spread to Irish emigrant communities abroad and they became embedded in the international celebration of St Patrick’s day.
According to folklore, on the day of Judgement Christ will judge all other nations, while St Patrick will be the judge of the Irish.
Erskine Nicol (1825-1904) St. Patrick’s Day (1856)
Mike Cronin and Daryl Adair, The Wearing of the Green: A History of St Patrick's Day, (Routledge 2002).